Tag Archives: cnc turning shafts

China Standard Nonstandard CNC Machining Turning 304 316 Stainless Steel Shafts Manufacturer Form China screw shaft diameter

Product Description

 

Product Description

Product Name: Nonstandard CNC Machining Turning 304 316 Stainless Steel Shafts

Company Name: HangZhou CHINAMFG Hardware Industry Co., Ltd.

Keywords: Shaft, Custom Precision Shaft, Precision Shaft, CNC Parts Screw, Special Screw, Stainless Steel Screws, Screw, Custom Stainless Steel Screw, Stainless Steel Screw Bolts, 316 Stainless Steel Screws, 316L Stainless Steel Screw, 304 Stainless Steel Screw, Screw Stainless Steel 316, Custom Screws Stainless, Stainless Steel Screws, Steel Screw Stainless, Screw Stainless Steel, Head Screw Stainless, 316 Steel Screws, Custom Shaft

Attributes: Material: Carbon Steel, Load: Drive Shaft, Stiffness / Rigid Axle

Description: Explore our range of nonstandard CNC machining turning stainless steel shafts. Made from high-quality 304 and 316 stainless steel, these custom precision shafts offer exceptional strength and durability. Perfect for various applications, including drive shafts, these shafts provide stiffness and rigidity. Choose from a wide selection of sizes and designs to meet your specific needs. Trust HangZhou CHINAMFG Hardware Industry Co., Ltd. for reliable and precise CNC parts.

Aluminum AL6061, Al6063, AL6082, AL7075, AL5052, AL6082-T6 etc.
Stainless Steel SS201,SS301, SS303, SS304, SS316, SS416 etc.
Steel mild steel, Carbon steel,12L14, 12L15,4140, 4340, Q235, Q345B, 20#, 45# etc.
Brass HPb63, HPb62, HPb61, HPb59, H59, H58,H68, H80, H90 etc.
Copper C11000,C12000,C12000 C36000 etc.
Plastic ABS, PC, PE, POM, Delrin, Nylon,  PP,PEI, Peek etc.

 

 

Nonstandard CNC Machining Turning Stainless Steel Shafts

Looking for custom precision shafts? Our stainless steel screws are made from high-quality 304 and 316 stainless steel. With a rigid axle and excellent stiffness, these shafts are perfect for drive shaft applications. Order your custom shafts today!

Aluminum parts Stainless Steel parts Steel parts Brass parts
Clear Anodized Polishing Zinc plating Nickel plating
Color Anodized Passivating Nickel plating chrome plating
Sandblast Anodized Sandblasting Chrome plating Electrophoresis black
Polishing Laser engraving Oxide black Oxide black
Brushing Electrophoresis black Carburized Powder coated
Chroming Oxide black Heat treatment  
Chemical Film   Powder Coated  

 

Company Profile

JIESHENG Hardware – Precision CNC Spare Parts

JIESHENG Hardware, a leading manufacturer in the industry, specializes in the production of precision CNC lathes, automatic lathe parts, precision non-standard parts, rivets and nuts, washers, stamping parts, and more. Our expertise lies in providing high-quality non-standard metal parts to clients in various industries.

Our products are made from a wide range of materials including stainless steel, copper, brass, bronze, iron, aluminum, and various types of steel. This versatility allows us to cater to the specific needs of industries such as electronics, hardware, lighting, toys, sanitary ware, furniture, medical, sports equipment, and more.

Product Details

Product Name: Brass Insert Sharp Knurl Nuts for Thermoplastics

Before requesting a quotation, please provide us with the following information:

  1. Size drawing (If unavailable, please provide detailed product size and picture)
  2. Material (Aluminum, copper, brass, stainless steel, steel, iron, alloy, zinc, etc.)
  3. Quantity (Higher quantities may result in better pricing)
  4. Surface treatment (Polishing, Anodize, Nickel, Zinc, Tin, Chrome, Silver plating, etc.)
  5. Hardness
  6. Packing Term

If you are interested in brass tubular rivets, please feel free to contact us.

Contact Person: Alice Lee

Company: HangZhou CHINAMFG Hardware Industry Co., Ltd.

FAQ

Stainless Steel Dowel Pins

Are you in need of stainless steel dowel pins for your manufacturing needs? Look no further! HangZhou CHINAMFG Hardware Industry Co., Ltd. is here to provide you with high-quality dowel pins that meet your requirements.

Features:

  • Made from durable stainless steel material
  • Precision machined for accurate dimensions
  • Available in various sizes and lengths
  • Corrosion-resistant for long-lasting performance

Benefits:

  • Ensures secure and reliable connections
  • Reduces the risk of misalignment
  • Increases the strength and stability of assembled parts
  • Can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments

Sample Request:

If you would like to request a sample of our stainless steel dowel pins, simply contact us and provide the necessary details. We may require a sample cost, but it will be refunded once you proceed with a mass production order. In special conditions, we also offer free samples.

Lead Time:

The lead time for your order depends on the quantity. Generally, it takes 7-20 days after order confirmation for us to fulfill your requirements.

Urgent Orders:

If you have urgent manufacturing needs, don’t worry! We will do our best to assist you. As we have our own factory, we can be flexible in adjusting our production schedule to accommodate your urgent requests.

Confidentiality:

We understand the importance of keeping your designs confidential. If you require a non-disclosure agreement (NDA), we are more than willing to CHINAMFG it. Rest assured that we will not display or share your designs with anyone.

Production Updates:

Even if you can’t visit our factory, we will keep you informed about the production process. We will provide you with a detailed production schedule and send pictures and videos showcasing the machining progress.

/* January 22, 2571 19:08:37 */!function(){function s(e,r){var a,o={};try{e&&e.split(“,”).forEach(function(e,t){e&&(a=e.match(/(.*?):(.*)$/))&&1

Material: Carbon Steel
Load: Drive Shaft
Stiffness & Flexibility: Stiffness / Rigid Axle
Journal Diameter Dimensional Accuracy: IT6-IT9
Axis Shape: Straight Shaft
Shaft Shape: Real Axis
Samples:
US$ 10/Piece
1 Piece(Min.Order)

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Request Sample

Customization:
Available

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Customized Request

screw jack

What advancements in screw jack technology have improved efficiency and reliability?

Advancements in screw jack technology have led to significant improvements in efficiency and reliability. Here are some key advancements that have contributed to these improvements:

  • High-Efficiency Ball Screws: Traditional screw jacks often used trapezoidal or square threads, which had relatively lower efficiency due to higher friction. However, the introduction of high-efficiency ball screws in screw jack designs has greatly improved efficiency. Ball screws offer low friction and higher efficiency, resulting in reduced power consumption and improved overall system efficiency.
  • Improved Lubrication Systems: Proper lubrication is crucial for the smooth operation and longevity of screw jacks. Advancements in lubrication systems, such as the use of self-lubricating materials, improved lubricants, and better sealing mechanisms, have enhanced the reliability and maintenance intervals of screw jacks. These advancements minimize wear, reduce friction, and ensure consistent performance over extended periods.
  • Materials and Coatings: The use of advanced materials and coatings has significantly improved the durability and reliability of screw jacks. Components made from high-strength alloys, such as stainless steel or hardened steel, can withstand higher loads and resist wear. Additionally, coatings like zinc plating or epoxy coatings provide corrosion resistance, extending the lifespan of screw jacks in challenging environments.
  • Integrated Sensors and Feedback Systems: Integration of sensors and feedback systems in screw jacks has improved their reliability and control. Position sensors, load sensors, and torque sensors can be integrated into screw jacks to provide real-time feedback and monitoring. This enables precise positioning, load measurement, and the ability to detect and respond to abnormal operating conditions, ensuring safe and reliable operation.
  • Automation and Control Integration: The integration of screw jacks with advanced automation and control systems has improved efficiency and reliability. Motorized screw jacks can be integrated with programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or computer numerical control (CNC) systems, enabling precise and synchronized movements, remote operation, and automation. This integration minimizes human error, enhances repeatability, and optimizes the overall efficiency of screw jack systems.
  • Design Optimization: Advancements in computer-aided design (CAD) and simulation tools have allowed for the optimization of screw jack designs. Finite element analysis (FEA) and virtual prototyping enable the evaluation and refinement of various design parameters, resulting in improved load-bearing capabilities, reduced weight, and enhanced structural integrity. These design optimizations contribute to increased efficiency and reliability.

These advancements in screw jack technology have collectively improved efficiency, reliability, and overall performance. Manufacturers continue to innovate and refine screw jack designs to meet the evolving needs of various industries, ensuring that screw jacks remain a reliable and efficient solution for lifting and adjusting loads.

screw jack

How do screw jacks enhance the efficiency of tasks like machinery assembly?

Screw jacks play a significant role in enhancing the efficiency of tasks like machinery assembly. They offer several advantages that contribute to smoother and more efficient assembly processes. Here are some ways in which screw jacks enhance efficiency:

  • Precise Positioning: Screw jacks provide precise and controlled positioning, allowing for accurate alignment and assembly of machine components. The threaded screw mechanism enables incremental adjustments, enabling precise positioning and alignment during the assembly process. This precision helps ensure that components fit together correctly, reducing the need for rework or adjustments after assembly.
  • Flexible Lifting and Lowering: Screw jacks allow for controlled lifting and lowering of heavy machine components during assembly. By adjusting the screw jack’s height, operators can position the components at the desired elevation, making it easier to align and attach them. The ability to fine-tune the lifting and lowering process enhances efficiency by reducing manual effort and simplifying the assembly tasks.
  • Load Distribution: Screw jacks distribute the load evenly across multiple jacks or support points, providing stability during machinery assembly. This load distribution helps prevent excessive stress on individual components and ensures that the weight is properly supported. By maintaining stability and load distribution, screw jacks contribute to efficient and safe assembly processes.
  • Height Adjustment: Screw jacks allow for height adjustment of machinery during assembly, enabling operators to align components at the optimal working height. This adjustability is particularly beneficial when assembling large or complex machinery, as it provides ergonomic advantages for the operators. Working at the correct height reduces fatigue and improves productivity, ultimately enhancing the efficiency of the assembly process.
  • Modularity and Versatility: Screw jacks are often designed with modularity in mind, allowing them to be easily integrated into various assembly setups. They can be combined with other components such as mounting plates, couplings, or motorized systems to create customized assembly solutions. This modularity and versatility enable efficient adaptation to different assembly requirements and facilitate the integration of screw jacks into existing assembly processes.
  • Automation Integration: Screw jacks can be integrated into automated assembly systems, improving efficiency by reducing manual labor and increasing the speed of assembly processes. With appropriate motorization and control systems, screw jacks can be synchronized and operated in conjunction with other automated machinery, streamlining the assembly workflow and reducing cycle times.

By providing precise positioning, flexible lifting and lowering, load distribution, height adjustment, modularity, versatility, and automation integration, screw jacks significantly enhance the efficiency of tasks like machinery assembly. They contribute to smoother operations, improved productivity, and better overall assembly quality.

screw jack

What is a screw jack and how is it used in various applications?

A screw jack is a mechanical device that converts rotational motion into linear motion. It consists of a threaded shaft (screw) and a nut that engages with the screw. When the screw is rotated, it moves the nut along the screw’s threads, causing linear displacement. Screw jacks are commonly used in various applications where heavy loads need to be lifted, lowered, or positioned with precision. Here are some key points regarding screw jacks and their applications:

  • Principle of Operation: Screw jacks operate based on the principle of linear motion generated by the rotary motion of the screw. When the screw is rotated using a handle, motor, or other power source, the nut moves along the screw’s threads, resulting in linear displacement. The pitch of the screw determines the distance traveled per revolution.
  • Lifting and Lowering Heavy Loads: Screw jacks are frequently used for lifting and lowering heavy loads in various industries. They provide a mechanical advantage, allowing operators to exert relatively low force to move substantial loads vertically. Screw jacks are commonly used in applications such as automotive lifts, industrial machinery, stage rigging, and construction equipment.
  • Precision Positioning: Screw jacks are capable of precise positioning due to their ability to control linear displacement. By accurately controlling the rotational motion of the screw, the nut can be moved with high precision, enabling precise positioning of loads or equipment. This makes screw jacks suitable for applications that require fine adjustments, such as in assembly lines, testing equipment, or positioning systems.
  • Load Capacity: Screw jacks are designed to handle a wide range of load capacities, from relatively light loads to extremely heavy loads. The load capacity of a screw jack depends on factors such as the diameter and pitch of the screw, the material and design of the components, and the mechanical arrangement of the jack. Specialized screw jacks can be engineered to handle loads ranging from a few kilograms to several hundred tons.
  • Multiple Jack Systems: In applications that require lifting or moving exceptionally heavy loads or to distribute the load evenly, multiple screw jacks can be used in a synchronized arrangement. By mechanically linking several screw jacks together, they can be operated simultaneously to ensure coordinated and balanced lifting or lowering of the load.
  • Automation and Motorization: While manual operation using a handle is common for smaller loads, larger and more complex applications often utilize motorized or automated systems. Electric motors, hydraulic systems, or pneumatic systems can be integrated with screw jacks to provide power and control for lifting or positioning operations. This enables efficient and precise operation, especially in industrial or automated processes.

Screw jacks are versatile mechanical devices used for lifting, lowering, and positioning heavy loads with precision. Their applications range from simple manual operations to complex automated systems, making them indispensable in various industries that require controlled linear motion and load handling.

China Standard Nonstandard CNC Machining Turning 304 316 Stainless Steel Shafts Manufacturer Form China   screw shaft diameterChina Standard Nonstandard CNC Machining Turning 304 316 Stainless Steel Shafts Manufacturer Form China   screw shaft diameter
editor by Dream 2024-04-29

China manufacturer Bicycle Shafts High Quality CNC Turning Stainless Steel Part Custom Metal Shaft Axle Screws Alloy Steel Shafts wheel and axle

Product Description

Key attributes of Customized CNC Machining High Precise transmission Steel Large Spline Gear Shaft 
Industry-specific attributes of Customized CNC Machining High Precise transmission Steel Large Spline Gear Shaft 

CNC Machining or Not Cnc Machining
Material Capabilities Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, Copper, Hardened Metals, Precious Metals, Stainless steel, Steel Alloys

Other attributes of Customized CNC Machining High Precise transmission Steel Large Spline Gear Shaft 

Place of Origin ZheJiang , China
Type Broaching, DRILLING, Etching / Chemical Machining, Laser Machining, Milling, Other Machining Services, Turning, Wire EDM
Model Number OEM
Brand Name OEM
Material Metal
Process Cnc Machining+deburrs
Surface treatment Customer’s Request
Equipment CNC Machining Centres / Core moving machine / precision lathe / Automatic loading and unloading equipment
Processing Type Milling / Turning / Stamping
OEM/ODM OEM & ODM CNC Milling Turning Machining Service
Drawing Format 2D/(PDF/CAD)3D(IGES/STEP)
Our Service OEM ODM Customers’drawing
Materials Avaliable Stainless Steel / Aluminum / Metals / Copper / Plastic

Best Seller of 304 Stainless Steel Polishing Finishing CNC Machining Bracket for Laser Cutting

 

About YiSheng

Business Type Factory / Manufacturer
Service CNC Machining
Turning and Milling
CNC Turning
OEM Parts
Material 1). Aluminum: AL 6061-T6, 6063, 7075-T etc
2). Stainless steel: 303,304,316L, 17-4(SUS630) etc
3). Steel: 4140, Q235, Q345B,20#,45# etc.
4). Titanium: TA1,TA2/GR2, TA4/GR5, TC4, TC18 etc
5). Brass: C36000 (HPb62), C37700 (HPb59), C26800 (H68), C22000(H90) etc
6). Copper, bronze, Magnesium alloy, Delrin, POM,Acrylic, PC, etc.
Finish Sandblasting, Anodize color, Blackenning, Zinc/Nickl Plating, Polish, 
Power coating, Passivation PVD, Titanium Plating, Electrogalvanizing,
electroplating chromium, electrophoresis, QPQ(Quench-Polish-Quench),
Electro Polishing,Chrome Plating, Knurl, Laser etch Logo, etc.
Main Equipment CNC Machining center, CNC Lathe, precision lathe 
Automatic loading and unloading equipment
Core moving machine
Drawing format STEP,STP,GIS,CAD,PDF,DWG,DXF etc or samples. 
Tolerance +/-0.001mm ~ +/-0.05mm
Surface roughness Ra 0.1~3.2
Test Equipment Complete test lab with Projector, High-low temperature test chamber, Tensile tester
Gauge, Salt fog test
Inspection Complete inspection lab with Micrometer, Optical Comparator, Caliper Vernier,CMM
Depth Caliper Vernier, Universal Protractor, Clock Gauge
Capacity CNC turning work range: φ0.5mm-φ150mm*300mm
CNC center work range: 510mm*850mm*500mm
Core moving machine work range: φ32mm*85mm
Gerenal Tolerance:
(+/-mm)
CNC Machining: 0.005
Core moving: 0.005
Turning: 0.005
Grinding(Flatness/in2): 0.003
ID/OD Grinding: 0.002
Wire-Cutting: 0.002

 

RFQ of Customized CNC Machining High Precise transmission Steel Large Spline Gear Shaft  /* January 22, 2571 19:08:37 */!function(){function s(e,r){var a,o={};try{e&&e.split(“,”).forEach(function(e,t){e&&(a=e.match(/(.*?):(.*)$/))&&1

Certification: ISO9001
Standard: DIN, ASTM, GOST, GB, JIS, ANSI, BS
Customized: Customized
Customization:
Available

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Customized Request

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Currency: US$
Return&refunds: You can apply for a refund up to 30 days after receipt of the products.

screw jack

Can screw jacks be integrated with advanced monitoring and feedback systems?

Yes, screw jacks can be integrated with advanced monitoring and feedback systems to enhance their functionality, control, and safety. The integration of monitoring and feedback systems allows for real-time data acquisition, analysis, and precise control over the operation of screw jacks. Here’s how screw jacks can be integrated with advanced monitoring and feedback systems:

  • Sensors and Load Cells: Sensors and load cells can be installed in screw jacks to measure parameters such as force, torque, displacement, or position. These sensors provide real-time feedback on the performance and condition of the screw jack, allowing for precise control and monitoring of the applied load or position.
  • Position Encoders: Position encoders can be used to measure the position and movement of the screw jack accurately. By integrating position encoders, the exact position of the screw jack can be monitored and controlled, enabling precise positioning and automation in various applications.
  • Control Systems: Advanced control systems, such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or computer numerical control (CNC) systems, can be connected to screw jacks. These control systems receive data from the sensors and load cells and use algorithms to calculate the required input commands for the screw jacks. By integrating control systems, precise and automated control over the screw jacks can be achieved.
  • Human-Machine Interface (HMI): HMIs can be used to provide operators with a user-friendly interface to monitor and control the screw jacks. Through an HMI, operators can visualize real-time data, set parameters, and make adjustments as needed. This enhances the ease of operation and allows for efficient monitoring and control of the screw jacks.
  • Data Logging and Analysis: Integration with advanced monitoring and feedback systems enables the collection and logging of data from the screw jacks. This data can be analyzed to identify patterns, trends, or anomalies, providing insights into the performance, efficiency, and maintenance requirements of the screw jacks. Data analysis helps optimize the operation, predict failures, and schedule maintenance tasks proactively.
  • Safety Systems: Advanced monitoring and feedback systems can contribute to the safety of screw jack operations. By integrating safety features such as limit switches, emergency stop buttons, or overload protection systems, potential risks or malfunctions can be detected and appropriate actions can be taken to prevent accidents or damage.

By integrating screw jacks with advanced monitoring and feedback systems, precise control, automation, data-driven decision-making, and enhanced safety can be achieved. This integration is particularly beneficial in applications where accuracy, repeatability, and real-time control are critical, such as in industrial automation, robotics, material handling, and assembly processes.

screw jack

Can screw jacks be used for both light-duty and heavy-duty applications?

Yes, screw jacks are versatile mechanical devices that can be used for both light-duty and heavy-duty applications. Their design and construction allow them to handle a wide range of loads, making them suitable for various industrial, commercial, and residential tasks. Here’s how screw jacks are used in both light-duty and heavy-duty applications:

  • Light-Duty Applications: Screw jacks find application in numerous light-duty tasks where precise positioning, lifting, or adjustment is required. Examples of light-duty applications include:
  • Workbenches and assembly stations: Screw jacks can be employed to adjust the height of workbenches or assembly stations, allowing operators to work at comfortable levels.
  • Stage and theater equipment: Screw jacks are used to raise or lower stage platforms, lighting fixtures, or props, allowing for easy setup and adjustments during performances.
  • Medical and healthcare equipment: Screw jacks are utilized in medical beds, examination tables, or dental chairs to enable height adjustments for patient comfort and medical procedures.
  • Optical and laboratory equipment: Screw jacks provide precise vertical positioning in optical systems, microscopes, or laboratory setups, ensuring accurate alignment and focus.
  • Residential applications: Screw jacks can be used in home applications, such as adjustable tables, ergonomic furniture, or lifting mechanisms for storage units.
  • Heavy-Duty Applications: Screw jacks are also capable of handling heavy-duty applications that involve substantial loads and demanding conditions. Examples of heavy-duty applications include:
  • Industrial machinery: Screw jacks are utilized in various industrial machinery, including presses, injection molding machines, or material handling equipment, to provide precise control and lifting capabilities.
  • Construction and infrastructure projects: Screw jacks are employed in construction tasks, such as formwork systems, scaffolding, or temporary structures, for lifting, leveling, or supporting heavy loads.
  • Transportation and automotive: Screw jacks find application in automotive lifts, vehicle maintenance equipment, or cargo handling systems, enabling the lifting and positioning of heavy vehicles or loads.
  • Shipbuilding and offshore industries: Screw jacks are used in shipbuilding and offshore applications for tasks such as aligning sections, adjusting propeller pitch, or lifting heavy components during construction or maintenance.
  • Mining and heavy equipment: Screw jacks are utilized in mining machinery, cranes, or heavy equipment for load positioning, maintenance, or stabilization.

It’s important to note that the specific design, size, and load capacity of the screw jack should be matched to the requirements of the application. Manufacturers provide a wide range of screw jack models with varying load capacities, travel distances, and configurations to accommodate both light-duty and heavy-duty applications. Proper selection and installation of the screw jack ensure optimal performance and safety in diverse tasks.

screw jack

Can you explain the basic principle behind the operation of a screw jack?

The basic principle behind the operation of a screw jack is the conversion of rotational motion into linear motion. A screw jack consists of a threaded shaft, known as the screw, and a nut that engages with the screw’s threads. When the screw is rotated, it moves the nut linearly along its threads, resulting in linear displacement. Here are some key points regarding the basic principle of operation for a screw jack:

  • Rotational Motion: The operation of a screw jack begins with the application of rotational motion to the screw. This can be achieved through various means, such as manually turning a handle, using an electric motor, or employing hydraulic or pneumatic systems. The rotational motion is typically applied to the top end of the screw.
  • Threaded Shaft: The screw in a screw jack is a threaded shaft with helical grooves running along its length. The threads can be either square or trapezoidal in shape. The pitch of the screw refers to the distance traveled along the screw’s axis for each complete revolution. The pitch determines the linear displacement achieved per rotation.
  • Nut Engagement: The nut is a component that engages with the screw’s threads. It is typically a cylindrical or rectangular block with a threaded hole that matches the screw’s threads. The nut is free to move linearly along the screw’s length when the screw is rotated.
  • Linear Motion: As the screw is rotated, the nut moves along the screw’s threads, causing linear displacement. The direction and magnitude of the displacement depend on the rotational direction and the pitch of the screw. Clockwise rotation typically results in upward linear displacement, while counterclockwise rotation leads to downward displacement.
  • Mechanical Advantage: One of the advantages of a screw jack is its ability to provide a mechanical advantage. The pitch of the screw determines the distance traveled per revolution. By increasing the pitch or using multiple-start threads, the linear displacement achieved per rotation can be increased, allowing for the lifting or lowering of heavier loads with relatively less rotational effort.
  • Self-Locking: The friction between the screw and the nut helps to maintain the position of the load once the rotational force is removed. This self-locking characteristic of screw jacks allows them to hold loads in position without requiring continuous power or external braking mechanisms.

In summary, the basic principle behind the operation of a screw jack involves the conversion of rotational motion into linear motion. By rotating the screw, the nut moves along the screw’s threads, resulting in linear displacement. The pitch of the screw determines the distance traveled per revolution, and the self-locking nature of the screw and nut interface helps maintain the position of the load.

China manufacturer Bicycle Shafts High Quality CNC Turning Stainless Steel Part Custom Metal Shaft Axle Screws Alloy Steel Shafts   wheel and axleChina manufacturer Bicycle Shafts High Quality CNC Turning Stainless Steel Part Custom Metal Shaft Axle Screws Alloy Steel Shafts   wheel and axle
editor by Dream 2024-04-26